Yazar admin on Şub 22nd, 2009

All spirits are alike in several ways. They are all distilled from a fermented liquid. They all have a high percentage of alcohol in comparison to other alcoholic beverages- most of them are nearly half alcohol and half water-.They are usually served before or after diner rather than with the meal.


a-Scotch: The whiskies we know as scotch are made in Scotland blends of malt whiskies and high-proof grain whiskies. Today’s popular brands include J&B, Johnny Walker, Chivas Regal, Cutty Sark, Dewards.

b-Irish Whiskey: It is made from several grains in addition to malted barley.

Jameson and Old Bushmill are the familiar brand names.

c-Bourbon: Bourbon is the best-known straight American whisky. Familiar

examples of bourbons are Jim Beam, Old Grand Dad, Early Times, Old Forester, Old Crow,

Wild Turkey, Maker’s Mark.

d-Rye: Straight rye is a fullbodied spirit with the strong flavor of its parent

grain, whereas most blended whiskies are lighter and less defined. Old Overholt is probably

the best-known straight rye whisky.

Uses and Service

Whiskies are served straight, on the rocks, with water or club soda or another mixer such as 7-Up, or in cocktails. They are ordered by type (scotch, bourbon, and so on). Whisky drinks are served before, after, or between meals but usually not offered with the meal.A whisky ordered “up” (straight, neat) is served in a shot glass or other small glass with a glass of ice water beside it.A whisky on the rocks is served in a 5- to 7- ounce rocks glass filled with ice cubes.The ice is put in the glass first and the whisky is poured over it.A whisky and water, soda, or other mixer is served in a highball glass. The glass is first filled with ice; then the whisky is poured and the glass is filled with water, soda, or mixer and swirled with a barspoon.

1.1.2. The Whıte Spırıts

Ø Vodka :Vodka is one of the most popular of all spirits. Light in body and light in taste, it mixes with fruit juices and liquers to make “light” drinks.The most popular of vodka is Smirnoff. We must add two imports, too: Absolut from Sweden and Stolichnaya from Russia.

Ø Gin : There are two types of gin.-Dutch and English style-Dutch gin is drunk straight and icy cold.English-style gin is made in both England and the United States. It is usually called London Dry. The term dry means lacking in sweetness. English and American gins are used in mixed drinks anda re almost never drunk straight-except in the very Dry Martini. The best-known gin drinks are the Martini, Gin and Tonic, and Tom Collins.

Ø Rum : Rums are used mostly in mixed drinks: Daiquiri, Pina Colada, Rum and Coke, Planters

Punch, for example.

Ø Tequila : Best-known brands are Jose Cuervo, Sauza, and Montezuma.

Ø Aquavit : It is served ice cold, straight, usually with a beer chaser and with food.

1.1.3. Brandıes

Ø American Brandies :The typical American brandy is smooth and fruity with a touch of sweetness.Christian Brothers and E&J Gallo are probably the bestknown brands and the biggest sellers. American brandies from other fruitsapple, apricot, blackberry, pineapple- include the name of the fruit on the label.

Ø Cognac and other French Brandies : Of all the brandies in the world, Cognac is the most famous and prestigious.

Ø Imported Fruit Brandies : The best-known nongrape brandy is kirsch or kirschwasser, made from the wild black cherry.

Uses and Service

Brandy served straight is a traditional after-dinner drink, presented according to custom in a large rounded brandy glass, or snifter. The glass is cupped in the palm of the hand, to warm the brandy slightly, and rolled about to release the brandy’s rich aroma –an important part of the sensual pleasure of the drink. It can also be served straight up in a pony or liqueur glass. Brandy is also served with soda or water as a highball, in coffee, in mixed

drinks.White brandies ordered straight should be served icy cold in a pony or liqueur glass.

Their most common use, however, is in mixed drinks.

1.1.4. Lıquers And Cordıals

Liqueur and cordial are two words for the same thing. Liqueurs are natural afterdinner

drinks, sweet and flavorful. Liqueurs are served straight up in a liqueur glass, on the rocks, and especially in mixed drinks. Some examples: Alexander (with creme de cacao), Black Russian (with

Kahlua), Stinger (with crème de menthe), Rusty Nail (with Drambue).

1.1.5. Bıtters

Bitters are spirits flavored with herbs, roots, bark, fruits, and so on, like the liqueurs,but they are unsweetened, and bitter is the right for them.The best-known of the beverage bitters is Campari. It is usually drunk with soda or tonic or in a cocktails such as the Negroni. Campari is a fashionable drink all over Europe. Another of the beverage bitters is Amer Picon. It is served with ice and water or used in cocktails.

1.2. Wınes

1.2.1. Types Of Wınes TABLE WINES

There are three types of table wine -red wine,white wine, and rosé.Table wines are sold by bottle,

carafe, and glass.Red wines are distinguished first by their color. Different wines are different shades of red, ranging from orange-red to ruby red to deep purple, depending on the type of grapes they came from and their age. Second, red wines are nearly always dry.In wine the word dry means lacking in sweetness. Dryness is one of the qualities that makes a red wine a suitable accompaniment to a meat course, such a steak or lasagna. Red wines are served at a cool room temperature of 65 to 70 °F-the temperature of water from the cold tap. White wines range in color from pale straw to bright yellow to gold. White wines range from very dry to very sweet. It is the drier whites that complement fish dishes; they also go well with other entrees and with appetizers and, in fact, with any foods. The sweet

white wines are generally served only with desserts, or as dessert. Usually a medium-dry white wine is a good choice for a house wine to be served by the glass or by the bottle. The rosés are various shades of pink, from palet o nearly red. In appearance you might think of them as pale red wibes, but in character and taste they are more like whites. Rosés are light and fresh, with fruity flavor, and many have a touch of sweetness.ıng Wınes

Another category of wine commonly offered in restaurants and bars is sparkling wine.This is likely to be champagne, though there are other similar wines. The outstanding characteristic of a sparkling wine is that bubbles. (A wine that does not bubble is called a still wine.)

Sparkling wines may be white, red, or rosé. The best- known red is sparkling Burgundy.

Champagne is the classical wine of celebration. It and the other sparkling wines should always be served well chilled. Champagne blends well with almost any food and is equally good by itself. Usually it is sold by the bottle, but it is served by the glass with Sunday brunch as a promotional feature. It is also an ingredient of certain cocktails and other mixed drinks. Fortıfıed Wınes

Adding the extra alcohol is known as fortifying the wine. Sherry and vermouths are the examples of fortified wines.Fortified wines are divided into two classes: aperitif wines and dessert wines.According to this classification, aperitif wines are fortified with spirits and in addition are

flavored with aromatic herbs and spices, or aromatized. The best-known of these aromatized

wines are the vermouths.Vermouths and other aromatized wines such as Dubonnet and Lillet

from France are served as wines by the glass-straight up (well chilled), or on the rocks, or

mixed with soda and a lemon twist, or half-and-half (half dry vermouth, half sweet).Most dessert wines, the other group of fortified wines, are sweet, rich, and heavy,appropriate to the end of a meal.They include port, sherry (all kinds), Madeira, marsala,angelica, muscatel. Sweet dessert wines are usually served at the end of the meal in the manner of a liqueur. Such wines may be served either chilled or at a cool room temperature.



MENU ITEM                                                    WINE SUGGESTION

Appetizer                                                     Champagne, dry white wine, dry sherry

Salad                                                            No wine

Fish or seafood                                            Dry or medium- dry white wine

Beef                                                             Hearty red

Lamb                                                           Hearty red

Veal                                                             Light red or full-bodied white wine

Ham or pork                                                Dry or medium-dry white or rosè

Turkey, duck, chicken                                 Full-bodied white or light red

Game(venison, pheasant, wild duck)          Hearty red

Lasagna, spaghetti, pizza                            Hearty red

Cheeses, full flavored                                 Hearty red, sweet white

Cheeses, mild                                              Sherry, port, madeira, mild table wines

Desserts, pastries, fruits, mousses             Semi-sweet sparkling wine, sweet white table wine


1.2.2.Servıng Wınesıne At The Bar

Both red and white wines are served at the bar by the glass.The glass should be soarkling. It should be held by the stem and set down before the customer. Most important, the wine should be the right temperature-45° to 55°for white wines and roses, 65° to 70° for reds.

If wine is ordered on the rocks, it is still best served in a wine glass.You can fill the glass one third full with ice and pour wine over the ice to within about half an inch on the top. Preparatıon For Table Servıce

Proper table setting for wine service is important. The wine glass belongs to the right of water glass. If more than one wine is to be served, the wine glasses are arranged in order of service with the first wine at the right, and each glass is removed at the end of the course the wine accompanied.A wine glass should always be handled by its stem. In formal service the glasses are brought to the table on a tray held at waist level. A more informal way of carrying them is hold them upside down by the base, with the stems between the fingers-you can carry as many as four this way. But the bowl aim not touched at all.Dessert wines are served in small after-dinner glasses, larger than a liqueur glass but

much smaller than an ordinary wine glass.Wines by the glass for table service are served the same way as wine at the bar. Wines by the glass or carafe should be pre-chilled to the proper temperatures. White wines by the bottle should be kept in a cool place and chilled as ordered. This takes 10 to 20 minutes in a wine chiller. The most efficient procedure is to put some crushed ice in the bottom of the chiller, put the bottle in, surround it with crushed ice, and add a little water. If you don’t have crushed ice, use a layer of cubes in the bottom of the chiller, put the bottle in, fill the chiller two-thirds full with cubes, and add cold water. Bring the wine to the table in the chiller. Red wines should never be served over 70°F. A fine expensive red wine should be served at 65° to 68°F; younger wines-Beaujolais, for example- can be served a few degrees colder. Sparkling wines should be served well chilled, Sweet white wines should also be very cold, except for certain German wines, which should not go below 55°F.A bottle of red wine should be opened at the table and allowed to “breathe” a few minutes before pouring. Red wines change slightly when exposed to air, and these delicate chemical changes rid the wine of any aroma of storage or mustiness it may have developed. Servıng Wıne At The Table

The ceremony of wine service is one part efficiency an done part showmanship. With the glasses in a place on the table, the server, standing at the right of the host, removes the bottle from the chiller and wipes it with a clean napkin. Then, holding the body of the bottle from underneath, with the label toward the host, the server presents it for the host’s approval. The server then opens the bottle.

The most practical bottle opener is the flat jackknife type known as a waiter’s corkscrew, which fits easily into the pocket. With the knife, the server cuts through the capsule along the ridge at the top of the neck and removes the top of the capsule. If there is mold, the server wipes it off the cork and the lip of the bottle with the napkin.The next step is to close the knife, extend the lever at the other end, and pull down the corkscrew to form a T. The server then inserts the corkscrew with the point slightly off center, so that the worm as a whole is directly over the middle of the cork. Keeping the

worm completely vertical, the server turns it clockwise until all of it has disappeared into the

cork up to the shaft and the tip has appeared at the bottom. The server then moves the prongs

of the lever into position on the rim of the bottle and holds them firmly in place with the

thumb. Then holding the bottle and lever together with a firm, steady pressure, and the server

slowly raises the opposite end of the opener. This will bring the cork out of the bottle. The

steady pressure on the lever is most important: without it a stubborn cork could cause the lip

of the bottle break. After removing the cork, the server wipes the lip of the bottle inside and out with a

clean corner of the napkin, removes the worm from the cork, and presents the cork to the

host. The server then pours an ounce or so of wine into the host’s glass for tasting and

approval. If a bit of cork has fallen into the glass, it will appear at this point and can be easily

discarded. A slight twist of the wrist as the pour is ended and the neck is raised will spread

the last few drops on the lip of the bottle so that they don’t drop. When the host has approved the wine, the server pours wine for the other guests, going counterclockwise around the table and serving from the right (if possible), completing the host’s serving last. Each glass should be poured not more than half full. The best way to hold the bottle is by the middle of the body, not by the neck. When everyone is served, the wine should be returned to the chiller or, if no chiller is used, placed on the table near the host.As the meal progresses the server should replenish the glasses as they are emptied.

When the wine is gone, it is the custom to put the bottle upside down the chiller- a “dead

soldier”-to signal the host that it is empty. Servıng Champagne

Champagne and other sparkling wines, because they have a special mushroom-shaped cork and the wine is under great pressure, are opened and served in a special manner.Champagne always served well chilled. The warmer the wine, the more it will fizz and the more effervescence will be lost. It is important to handle sparkling wine bottles gently so as not to agitate the wine, which will make it fizz.Over the champagne cork is a wire hood with a twist fastener, covered by foil. The first step is to remove the foil. Then, with a thumb over the cork, the server untwist the fastener and removes the wire hood. Now the server holds the bottle with one hand at a 45’ angle, pointing it away from the guests; the other hand holds the cork. The choice here is to hold the bottle

firmly and twist the cork or to hold the cork firmly and twist the bottle in one direction only. It is not necessary to pull on the cork, but it is necessary to keep a hand on it, lest it fly out and hurt someone. The pressure inside the bottle,plus the twisting, will ease the cork out gently.The server should keep the bottle at an angle for at least five seconds before pouring. This equalizes the pressure, letting gas escape without taking the champagne along with it. No gush, no fizz, just delicate chilly little wisps. But just in any case… have an empty champagne glass in front of you. If you happen to have a wild bottle, pour some immediately and it will stop gushing.The wine is poured into the guest’s glass in two motions. The first one brings froth,sometimes reaching the rim of the glass. When this subsides, the second pour should slowlyfill the glass about two-thirds full. When everyone is served, the bottle goes back into the chiller to conserve the effervescence. Decantıng Wınes

Red wines that are five years old or more and rare old white wines may develop sediment in the bottle and need to be decanted—poured into another container in such a way that the sediment remains in the bottle and the wine served is clear.The bottle to be decanted must be handled very gently, keeping it on its side just as it

was stored, so as not to disturb the sediment and mingle it with the wine. Sometimes the bottle is carried to the table in a special wine basket. If a basket is used, the wine is presented, opened, and decanted while still in its basket, keeping the bottle in an almost horizontal position.To decant a wine, a wide-mouthed decanter or carafe is placed on the table, with a lighted candle positioned a little behind the shoulder of the bottle. In this way, when the wine is poured from bottle to decanter, it can be seen clearly as it passes through the neck. The server then pours the wine slowly and steadily in a single motion without stopping, until the candlelight shows sediment approaching the neck of the bottle. The remainder of the wine—a small amount—is not served, and the clear wine is served from the decanter.



Acidity—A term used to indicate tartness or sharpness to the taste due to the presence of fruit acids.

Aroma—That portion of the wine’s odour derived from the grape variety and fermentation.

Balance—A tasting term denoting complete harmony among the main components of a wine.

Body—The weight of fullness of wine on the palate.

Bouquet—That portion of a wine’s odor which develops after it is bottled.

Cooperage—Containers used for holding or ageing wine before being bottled.

Dry—A tasting term to denote the absence of sweetness in wine.

Enology—The study of wine-making.

Fermentation—The process of converting naturel grape sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide by the addition of yeast.

Generic wine—Wine blended with several grape varieties in which the character of any one variety does not dominate. These wines are labeled with a generalized term such as chablis, burgundy, or rhine.

Nose—The total odor of wine composed of aroma, bouquet and other factors.

Residual sugar—The naturel grape sugar that is left in a wine which determines the sweetness level.

Tannin—The components in a wine that have an a stringent, puckery and sometimes bitter quality, and a mouth-drying aftertaste.

Varietal Wine—Wine made from grapes that are harvested in one given year.

1.3. Beers

1.3.1.Types Of Beers Lager Beers

There are several kinds and styles of lager beer as well as innumerable brands, each with its own flavor. The major kinds are the pilsner-style beer, light beer, malt liqueur, bock beer, steam beer, and-for a time at least-dry beer.

Pilsner is a descriptive term that is often applied the kind of beer we call beer—a lively, mild, dry, light-bodied, amber-colored, thirstquenchingliquid that mayo r may not say “pilsner” on the label. They include the best-selling Budweiser, Miller’s High Life, Busch, Coors, and the super premium Michelob.

Light beers are variants of the pilsner style. Catering to today’s

health-and-fitness vogue, these beers typically have one-third to one-half less alcohol and

less calories than the regular lager beers.

Malt liquors are lager beers with a higher alcohol content than pilsners.

Bock beers are traditionally strong, heavy, dark lagers with a high alcohol content and

a rich malty flavor. They are mainly German beers, originally brewed seasonally to celebrate

the coming of spring and other special times of year, but they can be made at any time. They

are not always dark; they may be pale, or amber, or bronze.

Steam beer is a truly American invention.

Dry beer is typically clean, lively, and refreshing, with little or no aftertaste besides

being less sweet. Ales

Ales have a characteristic fruity flavor. Most styles of ale have more body and more hops flavor than lagers, and some have more alcohol.

1.3.2. Servıng Beer

Serving a perfect glass of beer depends on three things: the condition of the glass, the way the beer is poured, and the temperature of the beer.

The glass, first key to perfection, must be “beer-clean”—that is, grease-free, film-free,

and lint-free. Any grease, oil, fat, or foreign substance, visible, or invisible, will spoil the

head on the beer; a dense, a firm head or foam will deflate and break up, leaving large

bubbles. The body of the beer will also lose carbonation.

You should open the can or bottle in the customer’s presence, to show you are serving

what the customer ordered, and proceed thus:

Ø Pour the beer straight into the center of the wet glass with the can or bottle at a step angle so that the beer gurgles out.

Ø When it creates a fine-textured head of some substance, lower the angle and fill the glass slowly until the foam rises to just above the lip.

Ø Wipe the container and set it beside the glass on a coaster or napkin.




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